This article is about how to start mango farming business in Nigeria currently in this year 2023. Asia is the original home of mango farming, and it is reputed to be the main fruit crop there. It originated in Asia and spread around the world. It was brought to East Africa by the Persians, and to West Africa by the Portuguese. Mango was introduced to Nigeria by roving merchant colonists. It has subsequently emerged as one of the nation’s main cash crops. In India, this economic tree accounts for 40% of all fruit exports and takes up around 15% of the global market. It exports primarily to the United States and nations in the Middle East, making up 60% of global production.
Nigeria’s highest mango producing State is Benue State, where farming is the main source of income. Mango growing is primarily done for business, and other States get a lot of their supplies from them. Mangoes come in a wide range of shapes, colours, tastes, and textures. Mangoes are both nutritive and advantageous financially. The fruit has a 15% sugar content, a lot of vitamin A, but little vitamin B and C. When mature, it can be processed into fruit juice and stored.
Nigeria is the ninth highest mango producing country in the world but the country hasn’t taken full advantage of this to make mango one of its best cash crops by exporting it to the rest of the world. Nigerian mango farming is incredibly lucrative because there are not many individuals that do it as a business. In the Southern part of the country, the majority of mango farmers are subsistence farmers. Due of this, there is no competition.
To take advantage of the prospects that mango farming offers, businesspeople, investors, and even the government can team up with private organizations and make significant investments in mango cultivation. It will significantly boost the nation’s economy and provide a great deal of new employment. Then, we will have enough for both the domestic market and export. Due to recent technological advancements, there are a large number of hybrid and grafted seedlings available, which makes it very simple and practical to start mango farming.
Mango trees need 7-8 years to mature and begin producing fruit. However, grafted seedlings can be grown and harvested in just three years, giving rise to mangoes with a decent taste and size. As we move on, you will get a thorough, step-by-step description of mango growing in this post, along with details on the numerous varieties grown in Nigeria at the moment. Without further ado, let’s proceed.
GUIDE ON HOW TO START MANGO FARMING BUSINESS IN NIGERIA 2023
The following are the step by step processes on how to start mango farming business in Nigeria this 2023:
Clear the land so that you may plant by removing any trees, shrubs, or grasses. Although mangoes may grow in a variety of soil types and climates, it is best to plant them in sandy-loamy soil for best results and growth. However, it can also grow very well on a clayey soil, even if it is very challenging at first but bears abundant fruit once planting is successful. To allow for easy root penetration, the soil must be deeply tilled and thoroughly loosened. The locations for the holes should be marked and staked.
Both seed and grafting are viable methods for propagating mango. The trees raised from seeds bear stingy-pulp fruits with a subtly turpentine-flavoured taste. Traditional seedlings are spaced 10m apart, while grafted seedlings are spaced 4m apart. the The hole needs to be 60cm x 60cm in size. Top soil blended with manure in the ratio 1:1 should be placed within the already-dug hole and mixed properly water. Mangoes ought to be grown as soon as the rains begin. After three to six months, move the seedlings to the main field.
A mango tree is to be pruned so as to aid in boosting the generation of lateral branches.
Dead and fruitless branches must be cut away in order to allow the tree to grow properly. Frequently prune them to maintain their shortness, especially after each harvest. Pruning helps the mango to grow fast and increase productivity.
When there is a drought or lack of rain, mango seedlings should be watered. Water the plants during the dry season to ensure healthy growth and a strong foundation for the tree.
A tree crop like mango can thrive when organic manure is used because it gives the soil precise, balanced nutrition while lowering the likelihood of tree damage. Additionally excellent at gradually releasing nutrients to the soil is organic manure, increasing their ability to retain moisture as a result. You can however apply NPK fertilizer in ring shape, 2 metres away from the trunk, if you choose to apply it.
PEST/DISEASES IN MANGO FARMING
In the farming of mangoes, pests are not a major issue. The foliage and fruits of plants are commonly affected by pests called Cococous spp. Applying Rogor 40EC at a rate of 15 milliliters per ten liters of water will regulate it.
CONTROL OF WEEDS
Weed needs to be eradicated from the farm as soon as possible because it is a negative competitor. The seedlings won’t grow well if weeding is delayed. Weeding should be done three times per year, but once the plant is mature, two times should be sufficient.
VARIETIES OF MANGO
There are generally two types of mango varieties namely local and foreign mango all having sub-types as we shall see below:
LOCAL MANGO VARIETY
Local mango varieties include the following:
- Benue Mango: It has a slight hint of yellow and is somewhat greenish. It can also be red and yellow in colour. The pulp is bright yellow to orange in colour. It can be as big as a melon and is rather enormous. Fresh and tangy flavor characterizes the taste. Benue mango is very abundant in the month of April.
- Cotonou mango: Cotonou mango has a slight red blush on it and is green in colour. When ripe, the flavour is similar to pineapple. It is very abundant in March and April.
- Kerosene mango: Although the flesh is yellow-orange with an eclipse form, the skin is a delicate peach colour. Turpentine or kerosene-like aftertaste is present. Firm, soft, and juicy describe the texture. accessible beginning in February.
- Normal mango: Grown primarily in Abuja, Cross River, Osun, and Enugu. When ripe, both the skin and the flesh are yellow. nonetheless, turns much more golden when fully ripe. It is oblong in shape and has a sweet flavour with a touch of spiciness. From stiffness to soft and juicy fibre form, the texture changes. Good for producing purees, both sweet and savoury. plentiful in February.
Other local mango varieties include: German mango, Sheri mango and Julie mango.
FOREIGN MANGO VARIETIES
Foreign mango varieties include the following:
- Tommy mango: It is the commercial mango that is most frequently farmed. This is due to its lengthy shelf life and ability to withstand handling difficulties such as bruising, abrasion, and deterioration. It is not the finest in terms of flavour and sweetness. Considering how much juice they produce, commercial growers favour them. The mango’s flesh has a slight sweetness and a fibrous texture. Most of the time, heavy red blush is used to hide it. The shape of a tommy mango is medium to big oval or oblong.
- Palmer mango: Because of their early coloration, it is harvested before it is fully grown. Smooth and with few fibres, the Palmer mango has a pleasant texture. The colour is a vibrant deep crimson blush with a green background and has a mild flavour.
While seed propagation takes roughly 8 years, grafted mango seedlings take 3 years to mature and produce fruit. Mango trees bear more fruit the more they mature. A 20-year-old tree will yield 300–600 fruit per year. Mango trees are cross pollinated; as a result, they produce an abundance of extensively shredded blooms, of which only 0.1 percent mature. Traditional mangoes produce 2–3 tonnes/ha each year, whereas hybrids produce 10% more.
After fertilization, the fruit matures between 2-4 months until it is ready to be harvested. The color might turn pale green or yellowish depending on the variety. Some people wait for the fruits to drop to the ground before collecting them for their own personal use. You do not need to wait until the mangoes are fully ripe to harvest them at a commercial mango farm. Harvest them manually from the tree when they are still slightly green. Mangoes should be stored on shelves in a cool, well-ventilated area. Only one week at a low temperature can be used for mango preservation.
After harvesting, you can then find a suitable market for your mango business. Reach out to companies that make fruit juice and sell to them. You can as well locate Men and women, retailers in the market who are already awaiting them and supply to them.